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Implied volatility acts as a critical surrogate for option value – the higher the IV, the higher the option premium. Since most option trading volume usually occurs in **at**-the-money (ATM) options, these are the contracts generally used to calculate IV.

Implied volatility is the market's forecast of a likely movement in a security's price. IV is **often used to price options contracts where high implied volatility results in options with higher premiums and vice versa**. ... Implied volatility usually increases in bearish markets and decreases when the market is bullish.

Key Takeaways. **At the money** (ATM) are calls and puts whose strike price is at or very near to the current market price of the underlying security. ATM options are most sensitive to changes in various risk factors, including time decay and changes to implied volatility or interest rates.

The "customary" implied volatility for these options is 30 to 33, but right now buying demand is high and the IV is pumped (55). If you want to buy those options (strike price 50), the market is **$2.55 to $2.75** (fair value is $2.64, based on that 55 volatility).

A high volatility indicates fear, uncertainty and wild extended swings in either directions (generally on the bearish side) in the markets. If you are an option buyer then **a high Implied Volatility** is fantastic for you as it increases the option price as they are a function of volatility.

Presented in percentages, an option with an implied volatility of **35%** is saying that the underlying stock is expected to stay within a 35% (high to low) range over the next year.

Put simply, IVP tells you the percentage of time that the IV in the past has been lower than current IV. It is a percentile number, so it varies between 0 and 100. A high IVP number, **typically above 80**, says that IV is high, and a low IVP, typically below 20, says that IV is low.

**Options containing lower levels of implied volatility will result in cheaper option prices**. This is important because the rise and fall of implied volatility will determine how expensive or cheap time value is to the option, which can, in turn, affect the success of an options trade.

Definition: **Put-call ratio** (PCR) is an indicator commonly used to determine the mood of the options market. Being a contrarian indicator, the ratio looks at options buildup, helps traders understand whether a recent fall or rise in the market is excessive and if the time has come to take a contrarian call.

Any option that does not have an intrinsic value is classified as '**Out of the Money**' (OTM) option. If the strike price is almost equal to spot price, then the option is considered as 'At the money' (ATM) option.

An at-the-market (ATM) offering **gives the issuing company the ability to raise capital as needed**. If the company is not satisfied with the available price of shares on a given day, it can refrain from offering them, saving its new shares for another day (and a better price).

If a stock has an implied volatility of 100%, that means over the course of a year, **the stock is projected to double in price or go to zero**.

Implied volatility shows the market's opinion of the stock's potential moves, but it doesn't forecast direction. If the implied volatility is high, the market thinks the stock has potential for large price swings in either direction, just as low IV implies **the stock will not move as much by option expiration.**

We had briefly looked at inter Greek interactions in the previous chapter and how they manifest themselves on the options premium. ... Theoretically speaking, all options of the same underlying, expiring on the same expiry day should display similar '**Implied Volatilities**' (IV).

A stock with a high IV is expected to jump in price more than a stock with a **lower IV** over the life of the option. ... When buying options that include the period of earnings announcements for the company, you will pay a much higher premium because the high implied volatility is already accounted for.

Vega **measures the amount of increase or decrease in an option premium based on a 1% change in implied volatility**. Vega is a derivative of implied volatility. ... Implied volatility is used to price option contracts and its value is reflected in the option's premium.

Put simply, **higher volatility**, sometimes called IV expansion, creates higher uncertainty about the future price action of the stock. As a result, IV expansion causes the prices of options to increase because the writers of options have a greater chance of losing a large amount of money.

The higher the standard deviation, the higher the variability in market returns. The graph below shows historical standard deviation of annualized monthly returns of large US company stocks, as measured by the S&P 500. Volatility averages around 15%, is often within **a range of 10-20%**, and rises and falls over time.

Volatility smiles are created by implied volatility changing as the underlying asset moves more ITM or OTM. The more an option is ITM or OTM, the greater its implied volatility becomes. Implied volatility tends to be **lowest with ATM options**. ... Demand drives prices, which affects implied volatility.

Generally speaking, traders look to buy an option when the implied volatility is low, and look to sell an option **(or consider a spread strategy)** when implied volatility is high. Implied volatility is determined mathematically by using current option prices and the Binomial option pricing model.

Profiting from IV crush is dependent **on buying options when the implied volatility is low**. This can be slightly ahead of an announcement as many will track company earnings a week in advance. Traders should pay close attention to the option's historical volatility, and compare IV against its historical valuations.

Delta is a ratio—sometimes referred to as a hedge ratio—that compares the change in the price of an underlying asset with the change in the price of a derivative or option. ... For options traders, delta **indicates how many options contracts are needed to hedge a long or short position in the underlying asset**.

The most profitable options strategy is **to sell out-of-the-money put and call options**. This trading strategy enables you to collect large amounts of option premium while also reducing your risk. Traders that implement this strategy can make ~40% annual returns.